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Araucaria heterophylla Araucariaceae
 

Araucaria heterophylla by Joanne Taylor

 

As its common name suggests, this tree is endemic to Norfolk Island, a small island in the Pacific Ocean between New Zealand and New Caledonia, about 900 miles east of Australia. A relative of the monkey puzzle and bunya pine trees, these trees, although "conifers" - or cone-bearing trees - are not true pines. Araucarias are member of a small, ancient family of Southern Hemisphere-restricted conifers, today comprising only 19 species.

The genus name Araucaria was originally derived from the Spanish term Araucano, meaning "from Arauco," a Chilean city that was founded in 1552 and an historic region of southern Chile inhabited by the Mapuche peoples known as the Moluche. The specific epithet heterophylla, a combination of heteros, Greek for "the other of two," and phylla, Latin (derived from Greek) for "leaves," refers to the two leaf forms - both awl-like and scale-like - found on mature specimens of the Norfolk Island pine.

Although the name Araucaria was coined much earlier and based on the Norfolk Island pine's Chilean relatives, this island species was not discovered until Captain Cook's second voyage between 1772 and 1775, and was introduced into cultivation in 1793. With the European colonization of Norfolk, Nepean, and Phillip Islands in the 1780's came massive vegetation clearing, resulting in less than 10% remaining over the subsequent 200 years. Modern-day conservation work has halted this clearing, and current populations are protected within Norfolk Island National Park.

Considered "Vulnerable" by the IUCN due to restricted distributions and the consistent need for conservation work to remove competitive, invasive species, the Norfolk Island pine has flourished elsewhere in the world in coastal climates and areas with mild winters. With little to no concern for invasivity, this long-lived, architecturally-stunning species is comfortable in the ground and in containers, and even performs well as a houseplant in bright light when kept in moist, well-drained conditions.

IN BLOOM CONTRIBUTORS: Text by Corey Barnes. Profile by Mona Bourell. Photos by Joanne Taylor.

Location

Araucaria heterophylla can be found
Andean Cloud Forest
bed 54D
Ancient Plant Garden
bed 68D 68G

Visiting Info >>
Map (Bed Numbers) >>

Profile

Scientific Name Araucaria heterophylla (synonym A. excelsa)
Common Names Norfolk Island pine
Family Araucariaceae
Plant Type Large pyramidal-shaped tree to 200 feet in its native habitat; to 100 feet in the San Francisco Bay Area.
Environment Full sun, can tolerate shade but leaves will tend to droop. Tolerates all types of soil. Has weak root systems and rarely needs repotting when grown in containers.
Bloom Female cones are produced on trees older than 15 years and male cones on trees older than 40 years. Prolific seed fall occurs every 4-5 years.
Uses Looks magnificent when planted in larger lawns, attractive in mass; does very well in containers, both inside and out. It tolerates festive holiday decorations each December. Popular as a houseplant; requires bright light.
More Info Even though commonly called a pine, it is not actually a true pine. True pines are in the genus Pinus. Often sold as a pre-decorated, potted Christmas tree of varying sizes (mostly smaller specimens).
 
 
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Aloe arborescens

Erica spp.

January

Edgeworthia chrysantha

Edgeworthia chrysantha

February

Edgeworthia chrysantha

Acacia pravissima

March

Ceanothus spp.

Ceanothus spp.

April

Euphoria mellifera

Euphoria mellifera

May

Bartlettina sordida

Bartlettina sordida

June

 Rhopalostylis sapida

Rhopalostylis sapida

August

 Rhopalostylis sapida

Berberis darwinii

September

 Rhopalostylis sapida

Araucaria heterophylla

October

 Jubaea chilensis

Jubaea chilensis

November

Aloe arborescens

Aloe arborescens

January

Magnolia stellata

Magnolia stellata

February

<em>Narcissus</em> spp.

Narcissus spp.

March

Cantua buxifolia

Polylepis spp.

April

Davidia involucrata

Davidia involucrata

May

Digitalis spp.

Digitalis spp.

June

Cantua buxifolia

Gunnera tinctoria

July

Cantua buxifolia

Liriodendron chinense

August

Cantua buxifolia

Cycads of the Ancient Plant Garden

September

Persea americana

Persea americana

October

Persea americana

Iochroma spp.

November

Camellia spp.

Camellia spp.

Deecember

Fitzroya cupressoides

Fitzroya cupressoides

January

Polyspora longicarpa

Polyspora longicarpa

February

Polyspora longicarpa

Magnolia laevifolia

March

Cantua buxifolia

Cantua buxifolia

April

Papaver rhoeas

Papaver rhoeas

May

Strelitzia reginae

Strelitzia reginae

June

Cestrum elegans

Cestrum elegans

July

Dichroa febrifuga

Dichroa febrifuga

August

Dichroa febrifuga

Sequoia sempervirens

September

Cestrum elegans

Salvia confertifolia

October

Cestrum elegans

Nerine bowdenii

November

Cestrum elegans

Protea lepidocarpodendron

December

Magnolia campbellii

Magnolia campbellii

January

Magnolia doltsopa

Magnolia doltsopa

February

Magnolia liliiflora

Magnolia liliiflora

March

Vireya Rhododendrons

Vireya Rhododendrons

April

Leucospermum spp.

Leucospermum spp.

May

Senna multiglandulosa

Senna multiglandulosa

June

Tagetes lemmonii

Tagetes lemmonii

July

Eucomis spp.

Eucomis spp.

August

Cuphea spp.

Cuphea spp.

September

Phyllocladus trichomanoides

Phyllocladus trichomanoides

October

Phyllocladus trichomanoides

Saurauia Madrensis

November

Pinus pseudostrobus

Pinus pseudostrobus

December

Magnolia dawsoniana

Magnolia dawsoniana

January

Magnolia campbellii 'Strybing White'

Magnolia campbellii 'Strybing White'

February

Magnolia laevifolia'Strybing Compact'

Magnolia laevifolia 'Strybing Compact'

March

Aristolochia californica

Aristolochia californica

April

Chlorogalum pomeridianum

Chlorogalum pomeridianum

May

Arbutus menziesii

Arbutus menziesii

June

Romneya coulteri

Romneya coulteri

July

Cistus sp.

Cistus sp.

August

Rosmarinus sp.

Rosmarinus sp.

September

Dahlia spp.

Dahlia spp.

October

Salvia cacaliifolia

Salvia cacaliifolia

November

Salvia cacaliifolia

Salvia microphylla
'Hot Lips'

November

Magnolia campbellii

Magnolia campbellii

January

Magnolia denudata

Magnolia denudata

February

Magnolia x veitchii

Magnolia x veitchii

March

Iris douglasiana

Iris douglasiana

April

Aesculus californica

Aesculus californica

May

Vaccinium ovatum

Vaccinium ovatum

June

Sambucus racemosa

Sambucus racemosa

July

Sequoia sempervirens

Sequoia sempervirens

August

Asarum caudatum

Asarum caudatum

September

Deppea splendens

Deppea splendens

October

Montanoa spp.

Montanoa spp.

November

Bidens sp.

Bidens sp.

December

Acer palmatum 'Sango kaku'

Acer palmatum 'Sango kaku'

January

Magnolia campbellii 'Darjeeling'

Magnolia campbellii 'Darjeeling'

February

Bomaria spp.

Bomarea spp.

March

Rhododendron occidentale

Rhododendron occidentale

April

Polystichum munitum

Polystichum munitum

May

x Chiranthofremontia lenzii

x Chiranthofremontia lenzii

June

Salvia leucantha

Salvia leucantha

July

Hydrangea seemannii

Hydrangea seemannii

August

Wollemia nobilis

Wollemia nobilis

September

Cyathea cooperi

Cyathea cooperi

October

Pinus radiata

Pinus radiata

November

Correa spp.

Correa spp.

December

Garrya elliptica

Garrya elliptica

January

Magnolia x soulangeana

Magnolia x soulangeana

February

Senecio glastifolius

Senecio glastifolius

March

Ribes spp.

Ribes spp.

April

Oxalis oregana

Oxalis oregana

May

Calandrinia grandiflora

Calandrinia grandiflora

June

Taxus baccata

Taxus baccata

July

Romneya coulteri

Romneya coulteri

August

Passiflora parritae

Passiflora parritae

September

Malvaviscus arboreus

Malvaviscus arboreus

October

Monterey Cypress

Monterey Cypress

November

Aloe arborescens

Aloe arborescens

December

Aloe plicatilis

Aloe plicatilis

January

Banksia seminuda

Banksia seminuda

February

Zantedeschia elliottiana

Zantedeschia aethiopica

March

Magnolia laevifolia

Magnolia laevifolia

April

Araucaria heterophylla

Araucaria heterophylla

May

Toxicodendron diversilobum

Toxicodendron diversilobum

June

Clarkia sp.

Clarkia sp.

July

Agapanthus

Agapanthus

August

Brugmansia

Brugmansia

September

Cedrus spp.

Cedrus spp.

October

Protea repens

Protea repens

November

Camellia sinensis

Camellia sinensis

December

Thujopsis dolabrata

Thujopsis dolabrata

January

Gordonia longicarpa

Gordonia longicarpa

February

Rojasianthe superba

Rojasianthe superba

March

Echium spp.

Echium spp.

April

Iris douglasiana

Iris douglasiana

May

Digitalis purpurea

Digitalis purpurea

June

Felicia amelloides

Felicia amelloides

July

Ceroxylon quindiuense

Ceroxylon quindiuense

August

Amaryllis belladonna

Amaryllis belladonna

September

Ginkgo biloba

Ginkgo biloba

October

Acer morrisonense

Acer morrisonense

November

Ilex aquifolium

Ilex aquifolium

December

Picea sitchensis

Picea sitchensis

January

Telanthophora grandifolia

Telanthophora grandifolia

February

Aeonium arboreum 'Schwartzkopf'

Aeonium arboreum 'Schwartzkopf'

March

Leptospermum Spp.

Leptospermum

April

Salvia gesneraeflora

Salvia gesneraeflora

May

Lavandula spp.

Lavandula spp.

June

Pelargonium

Pelargonium

July

Fuchsia paniculata

Fuchsia paniculata

August

Luma apiculata

Luma apiculata

September

Luculia

Luculia

October

Arbutus unedo

Arbutus unedo

November

Cycads

Cycad

December

Restionaceae

Restionaceae

January

Hellebores

Hellebores

February

Ceanothus

Ceanothus

March

Rhododendron

Rhododendron

April

Psoralea pinnata

Psoralea pinnata

May

Fremontodendron californicum

Fremontodendron californicum

June

Leucadendron argenteum

Leucadendron argenteum

July

Crocosmia

Crocosmia

August

Gunnera tinctoria

Gunnera tinctoria

September

Pellaea rotundifolia

Pellaea rotundifolia

October

Fuchsia boliviana

Fuchsia boliviana

November

Erica canaliculata

Erica canaliculata

December

Magnolia campbelli

Magnolia campbelli

January

Magnolia denudata

Magnolia denudata

February

Camellia

Camellia

March

Geranium maderense

Geranium maderense

April

Acmena smithii

Acmena smithii

May

Eschscholzia californica

Eschscholzia californica

June

Dendromecon harfordii

Dendromecon harfordii

July

Romneya coulteri

Romneya coulteri

August

Eupatorium purpureum

Eupatorium purpureum

September

Epilobium canum sp.

Epilobium canum sp.

October

Grevillea spp.

Grevillea spp.

November

Drimys winteri

Drimys winteri

December

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